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Stainless Steel Guide


303 Stainless Steel

303 stainless steel is an "18-8" chromium-nickel stainless grade with sulfur added to make it a free machining grade. The most easily machined stainless grade has good atmospheric corrosion resistance and is a good choice for screw machines. It is non-magnetic in the annealed condition and non-hardenable by heat treating. Typical applications include: nuts, bolts, shafts, bushings, screws, parts requiring machining, grinding or polishing.

Chemical Composition:

Carbon: 0.15 max
Nickel: 8.00/12.00
Chromium: 17.00/19.00
Manganese: 2.00 max
Silicon: 1.00 max
Molybdenum: 0.75 max
Phosphorus: 0.040 max
Sulfur: 0.050 max
Mechanical Properties
Tensile Strength 85-95 ksi
Yield Point 30-40 ksi
Elongation 2" % 45-55
Red. Area % 50-60
Hardness Brinell 160-210
Hardness Rb 83-95
Machinability % 75













304 Stainless Steel

304 stainless steel is a widely used "18-8" chromium-nickel stainless grade. It possesses good atmospheric and chemical corrosion resistance. 304 is non-magnetic in the annealed condition but may become slightly magnetic when cold worked. Non-hardenable by heat treating. A lower carbon grade is available, 304L, that lowers the carbon content to .03% max for better corrosion resistance on welded sections. Typical uses include: applications that require welding, architectural trim, oil, gas, and chemical handling equipment, dairy, beverage, and other food processing applications, surgical tools, valves, shipping drums.

Chemical Composition:

Carbon: 0.08 max
Nickel: 8.00/10.50
Chromium: 18.00/20.00
Manganese: 2.00 max
Silicon: 1.00 max
Molybdenum: 0.75 max
Phosphorus: 0.040 max
Sulfur: 0.030 max
Mechanical Properties
Tensile Strength 80-90 ksi
Yield Point 30-40 ksi
Elongation 2" % 55-65
Red. Area % 65-75
Hardness Brinell 150-185
Hardness Rb 80-90
Machinability % 45














316 Stainless Steel

316 stainless steel is an "18-8" chromium-nickel stainless with molybdenum added to greatly increase corrosion resistance as well as mechanical properties at higher temperatures. 316 is generally non-magnetic but can become magnetic when cold worked and is non-hardenable by heat treatment. Its higher strength and corrosion resistance, even at elevated temperatures, make it a superior choice over other chrome-nickel steels for uses that involve exposure to chemical and marine environments. A lower carbon grade is available, 316L, that lowers the carbon content to .03% max for better corrosion resistance on welded sections. Applications include: pharmaceutical, aircraft, marine, paper, textile, and chemical processing equipment, food processing equipment and surgical tools.

Chemical Composition:

Carbon: 0.08 max
Nickel: 10.00/15.00
Chromium: 16.00/18.00
Manganese: 2.00 max
Silicon: 1.00 max
Molybdenum: 2.00/3.00
Phosphorus: 0.040 max
Sulfur: 0.030 max
Mechanical Properties
Tensile Strength 75-90 ksi
Yield Point 30-40 ksi
Elongation 2" % 40-50
Red. Area % 60-70
Hardness Brinell 150-180
Hardness Rb 80-90
Machinability % 40














410 Stainless Steel

410 stainless steel precision ground flat stock is a basic martensitic stainless grade with good resistance to atmospheric corrosion. 410 is hardenable and optimum qualities are obtained through hardening. Magnetic in all conditions. Uses include: valve parts, pump rods, pistons, cutlery, screws, bolts, food industry machine parts.

Chemical Composition:

Carbon: 0.13
Chromium: 12.00
Manganese: 0.05
Silicon: 0.40
Phosphorus: 0.040 max
Sulfur: 0.030 max
Temp. °F
Annealing 1550-1650
Hardening 1750-1850
Tempering 400-1400
Rockwell C
35-46
Mechanical Properties
Tensile Strength 95 ksi max
Yield Point 130 ksi min
Elongation 2" % 10-30
Red. Area % 35-45
Hardness Brinell 302 min
Hardness Rc 32 min
Machinability % 55














420 Stainless Steel

420 stainless steel precision ground flat stock is a martensitic grade that can be heat treated to a hardness of 55 Rc with good wear resistance. Optimum corrosion resistant properties are attained when hardened and tempered and is magnetic in all conditions. Uses include: knives, scissors, bearings, plastic extrusion tooling, molds and hand tools.

Chemical Composition:

Carbon: 0.46
Vanadium: 0.30
Chromium: 13.00
Manganese: 0.40
Silicon: 0.40
Phosphorus: 0.040 max
Sulfur: 0.030 max
Temp. °F
Annealing 1550-1650
Hardening 1850-1950
Tempering 400-1100
Rockwell C
40-55
Mechanical Properties
Tensile Strength 95 ksi
Yield Point 50 ksi
Elongation 2" % 25
Red. Area % 55
Hardness Brinell 195
Hardness Rb 92
Machinability % 55














440C Stainless Steel

440C stainless steel precision ground flat stock is a high carbon, martensitic stainless grade. The higher carbon content enables the material to be heat treated to a hardness of 60 Rc, along with excellent wear resistance and ability to retain a cutting edge. Optimum corrosion resistant properties are attained when hardened and tempered. 440C is magnetic in all conditions. Uses include: knives, scissors, valves, balls and seats for pump parts that are exposed to oil or gas.

Chemical Composition:

Carbon: 1.05
Chromium: 17.00
Manganese: 0.40
Silicon: 0.40
Molybdenum: 0.40
Phosphorus: 0.040 max
Sulfur: 0.030 max
Temp. °F
Annealing 1550-1650
Hardening 1850-1950
Tempering 300-1400
Rockwell C
32-60
Mechanical Properties
Tensile Strength 110 ksi
Yield Point 65 ksi
Elongation 2" % 14
Red. Area % 25
Hardness Brinell 235
Hardness Rb 99
Machinability % 40

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